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Antiaging bionic and polyhydroxy acids reduce nonenzymatic protein glycation and skin sallowness

        Skin aging is a multimechanistic process that includes protein glycation. Protein glycation is the nonenzymatic joining of a sugar with an amino group found on proteins, such as collagen, forming advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). AGEs accumulate in skin naturally with age and are increased in various disease states including diabetes. They lead to a gradual cross-linking of collagen which results in reduced elasticity. This altered collagen is also less susceptible to normal catabolism and thus accumulates over time. AGEs are formed by the Maillard reaction which causes enzymatic browning. In skin, AGEs can be yellow in color and contribute to a sallow appearance of skin. The Maillard reaction is accelerated by oxidative stress and the oxidative reaction products are elevated in aging skin. Anti-glycation is considered an important antiaging approach in the maintenance of healthy skin. Compounds that inhibit nonenzymatic glycation may function in several ways, including as an antioxidant and/or chelator of oxidation promoting metals. The bionic acids, including lactobionic and maltobionic acids, and the polyhydroxy acid, gluconolactone, have previously been shown to provide numerous antiaging benefits to skin. An in vitro study was conducted with these ingredients and showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on nonenzymatic glycation that was statistically significant (P < .05) compared to water control and similar in efficacy to the positive control aminoguanidine. In vivo studies were conducted with up to 10% concentrations of these ingredients in topical cream formulations applied twice daily to the face. Visual assessment of sallowness over 12 weeks showed a statistically significant improvement up to 36% (P < .05). These results show a new mechanism by which these 3 ingredients provide antiaging benefits. The data demonstrate that lactobionic acid, maltobionic acid and gluconolactone are effective in reducing AGEs, and improving sallowness and tone. Glycation inhibitors may be useful to help preserve skin’s own natural collagen and enhance skin elasticity and resiliency.
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