Abbreviations used:FTM (female-to-male transgender), LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender), MSM (men who have sex with men), STD (sexually transmitted disease), WSW (women who have sex with women)
Gates GJ. In US, more adults identifying as LGBT. Available at: http://www.gallup.com/poll/201731/lgbt-identification-rises.aspx. Accessed July 23, 2017.
- The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People: Building a Foundation for Better Understanding.Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC2011
US Department of Human and Health Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion website. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health. Available at: https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-health. Accessed July 23, 2017.
- Inclusion of sexual orientation and gender identity in stage 3 meaningful use guidelines: a huge step forward for LGBT health.LGBT Health. 2016; 3: 100-102
- Medicare and Medicaid programs; electronic health record incentive program–stage 3 and modifications to meaningful use in 2015 through 2017. Final rules with comment period.Fed Regist. 2015; 80: 62761-62955
US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Civil Rights website. Section 1557 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Available at: https://www.hhs.gov/civil-rights/for-individuals/section-1557. Accessed January 14, 2017.
National Institutes of Health Sexual and Gender Minority Research Coordinating Committee website. NIH FY 2016-2020 strategic plan to advance research on the health and well-being of sexual and gender minorities. Available at: https://dpcpsi.nih.gov/sites/default/files/sgmStrategicPlan.pdf. Accessed January 14, 2017.
- Hollenbach A.D. Eckstrand K.L. Dreger A. Implementing Curricular and Institutional Climate Changes to Improve Health Care for Individuals Who are LGBT, Gender Nonconforming, or Born With DSD: A Resource for Medical Educators. American Association of Medical Colleges, Washington, DC2014
- Health and Public Policy Committee of American College of Physicians. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health disparities: executive summary of a policy position paper from the American College of Physicians.Ann Intern Med. 2015; 163: 135-137
- Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient- and Family-Centered Care for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Community: a Field Guide.The Joint Commission, Oak Brook, IL2011
LGBTQ Cultural Competency Continuing Education Amendment Act of 2015. 2015 DC B12-0168. Washington, DC; 2015.
- AIDS, Kaposi's sarcoma and the dermatologist.J R Soc Med. 1985; 78: 97-99
- HIV disease, from discovery to management: the major role of the dermatologist.J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990; 22: 1306-1318
- Dermatology-related epidemiologic and clinical concerns of men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women, and transgender individuals.Arch Dermatol. 2005; 141: 1303-1310
- Dermatologic care of the transgender patient.Int J Womens Dermatol. 2017; 3: 65-67
National LGBT Health Education Center website. Glossary of LGBT terms for health care teams. Available at: http://www.lgbthealtheducation.org/wp-content/uploads/LGBT-Glossary_March2016.pdf. Accessed August 20, 2016.
- Gender dysphoria. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.5th ed. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC2013
- Deutsch M.B. Guidelines for the Primary and Gender-Affirming Care of Transgender and Gender Nonbinary People. 2nd ed. University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (CA)2016
Gates GJ. How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender? Available at: https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Gates-How-Many-People-LGBT-Apr-2011.pdf. Accessed February 24, 2018.
- How Many Adults Identify as Transgender in the United States?.The Williams Institute, Los Angeles (CA)2016
Gates GJ, Newport F. An estimated 780,000 Americans in same-sex marriages. Available at: http://www.gallup.com/poll/182837/estimated-780-000-americans-sex-marriages.aspx. Accessed July 23, 2017.
- Minority stress and physical health among sexual minorities.Perspect Psychol Sci. 2013; 8: 521-548
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas, 2014. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/library/reports/surveillance/cdc-hiv-surveillance-report-us.pdf. Accessed February 24, 2018.
Herman JL, Haas AP, Rodgers PL. Suicide attempts among transgender and gender non-conforming adults. Available at: https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/AFSP-Williams-Suicide-Report-Final.pdf. Accessed February 24, 2018.
- Disparities in health insurance coverage, access, and outcomes for individuals in same-sex versus different-sex relationships, 2000-2007.Am J Public Health. 2010; 100: 489-495
- National and state-specific health insurance disparities for adults in same-sex relationships.Am J Public Health. 2014; 104: e95-104
Kates J, Ranji U. Health care access and coverage for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States: opportunities and challenges in a new era. Available at: http://www.kff.org/disparities-policy/perspective/health-care-access-and-coverage-for-the-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-lgbt-community-in-the-united-states-opportunities-and-challenges-in-a-new-era/. Accessed July 25, 2017.
- Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender-related content in undergraduate medical education.JAMA. 2011; 306: 971-977
- Curricular time, patient exposure, and comfort caring for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender patients among recent medical graduates.LGBT Health. 2017; 4: 237-239
- Finding the perfect doctor: identifying lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender-competent physicians.Am J Public Health. 2015; 105: 1114-1119
- Health care providers’ implicit and explicit attitudes toward lesbian women and gay men.Am J Public Health. 2015; 105: 1831-1841
- Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) physicians' experiences in the workplace.J Homosex. 2011; 58: 1355-1371
- Injustice at Every Turn: a Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey.National Center for Transgender Equality and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, Washington, DC2011
- Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence.Psychol Bull. 2003; 129: 674-697
- Minority stress predictors of HIV risk behavior, substance use, and depressive symptoms: results from a prospective study of bereaved gay men.Health Psychol. 2008; 27: 455-462
- LGBT access to health care: a dermatologist's role in building a therapeutic relationship.Cutis. 2017; 99: 228-229
- The Fenway Guide to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health.2nd ed. American College of Physicians, Philadelphia2015
- Office-based care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth.Pediatrics. 2013; 132: 198-203
- Standard operating procedures for taking a sexual history.J Sex Med. 2013; 10: 26-35
- Emergency department query for patient-centered approaches to sexual orientation and gender identity: the EQUALITY study.JAMA Intern Med. 2017; 177: 819-828
- Is it okay to ask: transgender patient perspectives on sexual orientation and gender identity collection in healthcare.Acad Emerg Med. 2017; 24: 655-667
- Do ask, do tell: high levels of acceptability by patients of routine collection of sexual orientation and gender identity data in four diverse American community health centers.PLoS One. 2014; 9: e107104
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. A guide to taking sexual history. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/sexualhistory.pdf. 2005. Accessed July 23, 2017.
National LGBT Health Education Center website. Taking routine histories of sexual health: a system-wide approach for health centers. Available at: https://www.lgbthealtheducation.org/wp-content/uploads/COM827_SexualHistoryToolkit_August2014_v7.pdf. Accessed July 23, 2017.
National LGBT Health Education Center website. Providing inclusive services and care for LGBT people: a guide for health care staff. Available at: https://www.lgbthealtheducation.org/wp-content/uploads/Providing-Inclusive-Services-and-Care-for-LGBT-People.pdf. Accessed November 5, 2017.
Human Rights Campaign. Healthcare Equality Index. Available at: https://www.hrc.org/hei. Accessed September 25, 2017.
Supported in part by the Dermatology Foundation and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under award numbers UL1TR002378 and KL2TR002381 (Dr Yeung). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
Dr Yeung received honorarium from InVentiv Health. Dr Katz was a stockholder in Prevention Health Labs and Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals. All other authors had no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.
Date of release: March 2019
Expiration date: March 2022